Latin terms translated into english and their meaning


allantoid- like sausage curved, usually applied to spores
amorphous- sructureless
anastomoses- veinlike connections or branchings, in spore ornamentation
annulus- remnant of the partial veil in the form of a membranous ring around the stipe
Apical- lying at the tip
apothecium- saucer or cup shaped fruiting body with an exposed hymenium composed of asci and paraphyses
appressed arcuate- decurrent- lying close against the surface
areolate- pileal surface divided into fields, usually by cracks
aurculate- earlike fruiting body
basal- at toward the lower end
basal mycelium- the network of hyphae at the base of a stipe
basidiospore- the sexual spore produced by basidiomycetes
boreal- term used in biogeography for organisms which occur in northern regions
buff- yellow brown color
bulbous- stipe base abruptly enlarged and rounded
calcareous- soil containig calcium
campanulate- bell-shaped pileus
capitate- cystidia with a rounded knob at the tip
capillitium- sterile threads in the gleba
cespitose- fruiting bodies crowded close together over a large area
citriform- spore lemon-shaped
collarium- a ring around the top of the stem to which the gills are attached
columella- persistant, central, columnar cord of hyphae in a sporangium 
conchate- shaped like a clam
concolorous- having the same color
concrescent- grown together 
convex- pileus domed upward
cortex- differentiated outer layer of the stipe, composed of more compact hyphae than in the center
cortina- a partial veil composed of an open network of fibrils
Costate- ribbed margin of pileus
crenate- scalloped margin of pileus or gills
cuticle-outermost layer of hyphae of the pileus and stipe, sometimes peelable
Decurrent- gill atachment, extending down the stipe
decurved- margin of the pileus bent downward, toward the base of stipe
dentate- margin of the pileus or gill, having toothlike pointed projections
depressed- slightly concave pileal surface
digitiform- finger-shaped cystidia
diverticulate- having outgrowths (hyphae)
eccentric- attached stipe off-center to the pileus   
effuso reflex - resupinat fruiting body with uplifted cups     
entire- smooth and even margin of pileus or gill
falcate- sickle-shaped
falcate-decurrent- decurrent gill attachment
farinaceous- tasting or smelling like fresh flour
farinose- surface covered with flourlike or mealy particles
fibril- a very small thin and threadlike fiber
fibrillose-scaly- surface having scales composed of fibrils
filiform- threadlike
flabellate- fan-shaped
flexuous- long ans wavy, curving back and forth, serpentine
flocci- cottony tufts or patches of hyphae on surface of a fruiting body
fugacious- quickly disappearing
furfuraceous- surface covered with branlike particles
fusiform- spores or stipe spindle-shaped, broad in the middle and tapered toward both ends
geniculate- sharply bent, like a knee
gill- one of the radiating bladelike structures under the cap of a mushroom, which bear the spores; lamella 
glabrescent- becoming glabrous over time
glabrous- surface bald, smooth
globose- spores, hyphal cells spherical
grammate- stipe grooved
herbaceous- plants soft, non-woody
hyaline- spores, hyphae colorless, under microscope
hygrophanous- becoming light on color on loss of water, sometimes clearly recognnizable by concentric zones of light and dark; also changing color markedly upon loss of water
hygroscopic- taking up water
hymeniform- with the structure of a hymenium
hymenophore- the underlying structure of a fruiting body, which bears the hymenium
imbricate- overlapping like shingles
incurved- margin bent inward toward the stipe
infundibuliform- pileus funnel-shaped
innate- fibrils, scales forming an integral part of the surface, not merely lying superficially on it
inrolled- margin rolled downward, inward, upward, and back outward again
insititious- a stipe which is squarely attached to its substrate without the appearance of mycelium
intervenose- gills interconnected by veins
Irpicoid- having flattened, slit teeth which can be fused at the base
isabell- color- pale gray yellow
lamella- one of the radiating bladelike structures or gills under the cap of a mushroom, which bear the spores; strictly, one which extends from the margin of the pileus to the stipe
lamellate- fruiting body having lamellae
lardaceous- having consistency of lard
lateral- stipe attached at or toward the side of the pileus
lenticular- lens shaped
lubricous- surface slippery, as if covered with oil
marginal cell- cystidumlike hyphal end on the edge of a lamella, less conspicuous than and not as strongly differentiated as a true
medulla- middle layer of tissue between the hymenium and excipulum
merulloid- folded porose hymenophore whose pore margins are fertile
metachromatic- said of cell wally which in a reagent turn a different color feom that of the reagent
micaceous- pileal surface covered with small shiny particles
montane- vegetational zone, in Switzerland between 700 and 1200 m above sea level
mottled- stipe an irregular horizontal banding which arises as the surface structure is torn irregularly during growth
mycelial strands- bundles of hyphae which look like strings
mycelium- entire undifferentiated network of hyphae which grows in the substrate and makes up the vegetative part of the fungus
mycorrhiza- compound structure produced by the symbiosis between a fungus and the root of a higher plant
navicular- boat shaped
net- netlike pattern on the surface of the stipe of a bolete
nitrous- odor like nitrogen compounds
nodolose- having small knots
notched (gill)- appearing as if a notch had been removed from the lower part of the gill where oft attaches to the stipe so that it is narrowly attached by the upper portion
notched (tubes) - with the hymenophore curving rather abruptly upwards where it attaches to the stipe, so that the whole surface of the tube-mouths superficially resembles the collective appearance of notched gills, with a ringlike concavity around the stipe
nucleus- kernel-shaped body in the cytoplasm of cells which contains the chromosomes and divides during cell division
obligate- a fungus with specific ecological requirement  
obtuse- rounded or blunt
odontoid- blunt spined      
omphalinoid- having the general appearence of an Omphallina, a small delicate mushrooms usually with umbilicate cup and decurrent gills  
ornamentation- warts, spines, ridges on the suface of a spore 
ostiole- pore in the perithecium of the Sphaeriales, usally apically located for the release of the spores 
ovoid- egg-shaped spore
papilla- wartlike to nipplelike projection in the center of a pileus
parasite- a fungus which attacks living organisms and obtains its nutrition from the substance of ther bodies
partial veil- a veil which extends fromm the pileal margin to the stipe of immature fruiting bodies, covering only the hymenophore, often evident in mature fruiting bodies as an annulus around the stipe or fragments hanging from the margin of the pileus 
pedicel- short stem (remains of sterigma)
periderm- covering tissue, outermost layer
peridium- tissue layer sheating a fruiting body
pileal- pertaining to the pileus
pileate- having a cup or pileus
pileocystidia- cystidia on the surface of a pileus
pileipellis- outermost layer of the cup
pileus- the cup of a mushroom or bolete
pilose- covered with long, dense, soft hairs
pip shaped- drop shaped with tapered end bent
planoconvex- pileal shape broadly convex and more or less flattened
planopulvinate- pileal shape cushion-shaped and more or less flattened
pleurobasidia- basidia which develop laterally on the hyphae
poor meadow- uncultivated and barely manured meadow, usually on calcareous soils
porose- having true pores; applied to fungi in which the hymenium lines individual tubes and therefore the surface view shows pores
pruinose- surface covered with fine powder
pseudocollar- collarlike zone at the transition between stipe and pileus; the lamellae are not attached to the stipe but end shortly before it, forming a collar-shaped zone
pseudocystidia- extensions of conducting system of a dense, feltlike hyphal layer
pseudothecium- peritheciumlike fruiting body of various loculoascomycetes
pubescent- surface covered with short, soft, downy hairs
pulvinate- pileus cushion-shaped, deeply convex
punctate- surface having dots
pyriform- cystidia, cells pear-shaped
- radishlike odor or taste
regular- lamellar trama having hyphae which are parallel when the gil is viewed in cross section
reniform- kidney-shaped pileus
resupinate- upside down and closely appresed to the substrate
rhizoid- a rootlike strand of hyphae which resembles a thread or string, which penetrates the substrate
ruderal- growing in waste places
rudimentary- underdeveloped, poorly differentiated, stunted
saprophyte- a fungus which colonizes and decomposes dead organic material
scaber- small projecting scale or tuft of hairs on the stipe of the bolete Leccinum
sclerotium- a resting body composed of a resistant mycelium of compact hyphae, with a thick cortex
scurfy- with branlike flakes surface  
semipileat - in cup notched on the substrate       
serrate- margin of the pileus or gill jagged and with sharp teeth like a saw
silicate soils- acid soils above silicate rocks
spinose- spores having spines
spores- reproductive cells of lower plants, formed sexualy by nuclear fusion ans subseyuent meiosis, or asexually
sporangium- hollow body bearing spores
squamose- surface covered with scales
squarrose- covered with recurved scales
sterigmata- finger to thorn shaped outgrowths on the apical end of the basidia on which the spores develop
sterile- immature, not producing or containing spores
stipe- the stalk of a fruiting body
- having parallel lines, grooves or ridges
stroma- flattened or cushion shaped hyphal network on or in which fungal fruiting bodys develop
subgleba- lowermost, sterile chambered tissue in gasteromycetes
subglobose- almost spherical
subiculum- lowermost hyphal layer, which is appressed to the substrate
subinsititious- almost insititious but with a small amount of basal mycelium visible
subregular- lamellar trama having hyphae which are not enirely regular when teh gill is viewed in cross section, but are slightly intertwined
substrate- material on which a fungus grows
synonym- name which has the same meaning but which is not valid according to the rules of numenclature, and should not be used
tomentose- surface densely matted and woolly, like a blanket
trama- fundamental tissue, the sterile inner tissue of a fruiting body, usually composed of a tubular hyphaewhich are divided into cells by septa, a microscopic term
translucent-striate- margin of pileus having translucent tissue which permits the attachment of the gills to show through as dark lines
truncate- appearing cut off
tuberculate- having small bumps or tubercules
tuberculate-striate- margin of pileus with small bumps on the striations
turbinate- pileus top-shaped
umbilicate- pileal surface with a small central depression resembling a navel
umbo- a small central bump
umbonate- pileal surface with a central bump
uncinate- shape of gills notched and attached to the stipe by a low decurrent extension or tooth
urniform- urn shaped in outline
undulating- pileal margin or surface, edge of gill broadly wavy
veil- thin layer of tissue attached to or covering a fruiting body
velar- pertaining to a veil
venose- having veinlike wrinkles or ridges
ventricose- stipe, cystidia swollen or enlarged in the middle
vertical- perpenndicular to the surface
verrucose- having warts of rounded processes
villose- having long weak hairs
viscid- surface sticky when moist
zonate/zoned- surface of pileus having concentric bands of different colors; surface of stipe having rings of a different color from the ground color






Reagents for the macro-chemical reaction


Nitric acid HNO3 around 65%
hydrochloric acid HCl around 36-38%
sulfuric acid H2SO4 60-70% (3 ml water + 4 ml concentrate sulfuric acid; sulfuric acid pour in the water- never reverse!) If the color of sulfuric acid is yellow, green or brown, you should replace it
Potassium hydroxide KOH 30-40% and 2,5-3%, for cortinarius usually 20%
Sodium hydroxide NaOH 30-40%, for cortinarius usually 20%
ammonia NH3 25%
aniline, aniline water, with aniline saturated
benzidin 1% alcoholic solution (carcinogenic!)
ferric chloride FeCl3, 10% aqua solution
ferrous Sulfate FeSO4, 1 g of crystals dissolve in 10 ml of water, then add 2-3 drops concentrated sulfuric acid
formol 35-40%
fenol 2 g crystal fenol dissolve in 100 ml water
fenilanilin in 10 ml 2-3% aqua fenol solution  drop 3 drops aniline and 5 drops concentrated sulfuric acid
Guaiacol in ethanol we dissolve crystals or liquid oil- sensitive on air and light
guaic 1 g guaic resin dissolve in 5 g of 60-70% alcohol
lactophenol mix lactic acid and 2-3% carbilic acid in equal parts
lugol solution, 1 g iodine and 2 g potassium iodide dissolve in 150 ml of destilled water
Melzer's reagent, 0,5 g iodine and 1,5 g of potassium iodide dissolve in 20 ml water, add 20 ml chloral hydrate
Chloral hydrate solution, 20 g Chloral hydrate in 10 ml of destilled water, freshly prepared
alpha-naphtol, 1 g of alpha-naphthol dissolved in 2 ml of ethanol, add 4 ml of distalled water
SF-sulfo-formol, 35-40% formol add the same amount of 60-70% sulfuric acid (not reverse!)
SV-sulfovanillin, on 3 ml of water add 8 ml of concentrated sulfuric acid, and then this mixture is dissolved in 18 vanillin
mercuric nitrate - 1 g Hg is dissolved in 10 ml of nitric acid (resistance only 2-3 months. Caution: highly toxic!)



Reagents for the micro-chemical reactions at Ascomycetes


Melzer: blue = positive amyloid, yellow or brown = dekstrinoid, negative = without a negative reaction
ammonia: apothecia tissue becomes in ammonia quickly fibrous
KOH 4-10%: works similar. Before painting, wash the lye from the fabrics
Giemsa: for painting vegetative nuclei
laktofenol Coton blue: 0,05 g cotton blue dissolved in 30 g of lactic acid
sudan IV - for oil drops in micelium and the spores
water Tint: for observation of slimy structures
CAC - carmine acetic acid: saturated solution of carmine in 50% acetic acid, for dye granules in carmine bazidies


a) 0,05 g of aniline blue dissolved in 30 g of lactic acid, then stands for 24 hours, later filtered
b) 0,1 g of filtrate and mix it with 100 ml of water



Reagents for chemical reactions for Leccinum


ferrous Sulfate FeSO4 10% aqueous solution
Formol = formalin 40% solution of formaldehyde (HCHO) in water
guaic 1 part guauc grain + 5 parts of alcohol
sulfuric acid H2SO4 60-70%
Potassium hydroxide KOH usually 10% aqueous solution
Melzer's reagent ½ g of iodine, 1 ½ g potassium iodine in 20 ml of water and 20 ml chloral hydrate (poison!)
ammonia 10% aqueous solution
phenol 2-3% aqueous solution



How to paint spores of Russula


Spores from Russula and Lactarius have on the outher surface special spore garnish, which is colored with iodine (amilloid reaction). Iodine is very dark, that is why we add Chloral hydrate, which dilutes and clears the rest of iodine. For easier spore observation.

For observation under microscope Russula cap stays for few hours on slide. Spore print surface 5x5 mm let on the slide, alll other wipe away. Then color it with Melzer' s reagent. First drop on slide Melzer A- dark liquid, so the spores are wet. Wipe the wet away and add Melzer B- thick, clear liquid. Carefully cover it with cover slip, and be careful that no air stays under the cover slip. For ideal picture we need very thin preparation, for around 10 μm spore thickness. We observe it under maximum magnification, with immersion lens (lens x 100). Spore garnish can be fine net (Russula emetica), with warts or needles (Russula integra), fluted (lot of Lactarius), but regularly mixed. Each typ has it's own spore garnish. Russula and Lactaruis spores are ellipsoid and elongated. For accurate measurment it is requiered that you have a minimum of 25 regular, normal development spores. Normal size of Russula are 5x7 μm for small, and 10x14 μm for large spores.